This article is discussing the duration of suicidal crises of those who may or may not suffer from a mental health condition. We are a long way in finding answers in how to help and respond to these types of tragedies.
While some suicides are deliberative and involve careful planning, many appear to have been hastily decided-upon and to involve little or no planning. Chronic, underlying risk factors such as substance abuse and depression are also often present, but the acute period of heightened risk for suicidal behavior is often only minutes or hours long (Hawton 2007).
The following studies are interviews from those people hospitalized after a suicide attempt.
The Houston study interviewed 153 survivors of nearly-lethal suicide attempts, the the 13-34 age range. Survivors of these attempts were thought to be more like suicide completers due to the medical severity of their injuries or the lethality of the methods used. They were asked: “How much time passed between the time you decided to complete suicide and when you actually attempted suicide?” One in four deliberated for less than 5 minutes! (Simon 2005).
Duration of Suicidal Deliberation:
24% said less than 5 minutes
24% said 5-19 minutes
23% said 20 minutes to 1 hour
16% said 2-8 hours
13% said 1 or more days
A study from Deisenhammer asked people who were seen in a hospital following a suicide attempt how long before their suicidal act they first started thinking about attempting it. 48% said within 10 minutes of making the attempt. An Australian study of emergency department visits found 40% of attempters took action within 5 minutes of deciding to attempt (Williams 1980). The authors summarized seven earlier studies that found one-third to four-fifths of attempts were impulsive.
In an Australian study of survivors of self-inflicted gunshot wounds, 21 of 33 subjects (64%) stated that their attempt was due to an interpersonal conflict with a partner or family member (deMoore 1994). Most survivors were young men who did not suffer from major depression or psychosis, and the act was almost always described as impulsive. A similar study in Texas with 30 firearm attempters found 60% had experienced an interpersonal conflict during the 24 hours preceding their attempt (Peterson 1985).
At least one-third of suicide decedents under age 18 experienced a crisis within 24 hours of taking their life, according to NVISS data drawn from police and coroner/medical examiner reports. The proportion with a crisis declined with age. In some cases the crises were not just same-day but virtually same-moment (such as shooting themselves in the midst of an argument).
Interviews with 268 patients hospitalized for a poisoning suicide attempts in Sri Lanka found that just over half took the poison after less than 30 minutes of thought, often directly following an argument (Eddelston 2006). While most of these patients survived their attempts, 13 died. Like the nonfatal attempters, over half of those who died deliberated less than 30 minutes.